Non-emergency medical transportation companies address that need, and starting one — while it requires the usual planning and paperwork — is relatively straightforward.
Since that time, significant gains in efficiency have been made through improvements in aerodynamics, tire rolling resistance and engine performance. Manufacturers have enhanced tractor aerodynamics, for example, by streamlining the front profile and sloping the hood, utilizing aerodynamic bumpers and mirrors, and adding roof and side fairings.
These changes have reduced the average drag coefficient a measure of wind resistance from 0. Further efficiency improvements have been mandated for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles manufactured in and beyond. Environmental Protection Agency EPA and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA issued a joint rulemaking in that specifies emissions and fuel consumption standards, respectively, for truck-tractors, heavy-duty pickups and van and certain vocational vehicles.
A second phase of this program was enacted in which requires additional reductions in GHG emissions and fuel consumption. In addition, newly established standards for the trailers pulled by these trucks will provide up to an additional 9 percent reduction by vehicle transportation business plan Tractor Aerodynamics Truck tractors have become increasingly more aerodynamic with manufacturers analyzing design aspects ranging from windshield angles to sun visor shapes in an effort to improve efficiency.
Several devices are currently available for improving tractor aerodynamics including roof fairings, gap reducers, aerodynamic bumpers and mirrors and fuel tank side fairings see Figure 4. Currently Available Aerodynamic Devices Many of these devices are available as options on new tractor purchases or can be retrofitted on existing tractors.
Tire rolling resistance accounts for approximately 30 percent of the energy required to move a line-haul truck on level roads and at highway speeds. Specific features may include slightly thinner sidewalls, shallower tread depths and low rolling resistance tread compounds.
An ATRI survey found LRR dual tires to be one of the most common fuel saving technologies — used by more than 75 percent of survey respondents. A study found a five-axle tractor-trailer combination that is equipped with single-wide tires and aluminum rims which are lighter than standard steel rims can reduce weight by to 1, pounds.
Tire Pressure Systems Under-inflated tires can significantly increase rolling resistance, thus increasing fuel consumption. An earlier report prepared by the North American Council for Freight Efficiency found reliability to be the number one criteria among fleets when selecting tire pressure systems since downtime negates the efficiency improvement.
As a result of engine improvements and cleaner fuels, diesel engines today produce between 60 and 99 percent fewer emissions of sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter when compared to earlier versions of these engines.
Electrification of engine accessories — Traditional belt- or gear-driven accessories can be converted to electric power. Reduction of engine friction — Engine friction reduction has been pursued continuously by manufacturers through careful design and selection of advanced materials.
Improvement of diesel exhaust particulate matter PM control using a diesel particulate filter DPF with a catalyst coating — The use of a DPF can degrade the fuel efficiency of the engine owing to exhaust flow restriction and pressure buildup in the system or the need for additional fuel to maintain the operation of the DPF.
The use of catalyst coatings can help promote oxidation and reduce the need for additional fuel. Improved driveline efficiency — New automated mechanical and automatic transmissions have been shown to improve fuel economy resulting in lower emissions.
Hybrid power trains — A hybrid vehicle combines at least two energy converters, such as internal combustion engines, electric drives, and hydraulic drives.
Federal regulations have played a key role in the advancement of engine technologies. More stringent engine emissions standards for heavy-duty trucks have been phased-in several times over the past two decades, including in pulled ahead to for most manufacturers,and While these mandates progressively decreased allowable emissions from truck engines, average fuel economy for trucks peaked in and had largely experienced an average annual declines through Since medium and heavy-duty fleets are comprised largely of diesel engines, natural gas in both its compressed [CNG] and liquefied [LNG] formsbiodiesel and hybrid engines are emerging alternative fuel options.
The typical driving range of a vehicle is a key factor in determining the most appropriate alternative fuel. For example, CNG may be a suitable option for port drayage, city refuse haulers and local delivery trucks since these trucks tend to operate in closer proximity to a refueling station.
Diesel-electric hybrids may be best suited for local pick-up and delivery operations that utilize medium- to light-duty straight trucks. Recent discoveries of large natural gas reserves across the U.
Studies have also estimated life-cycle GHG emissions reductions as high as 14 percent when LNG replaces diesel fuel and as high as 22 percent when CNG replaces gasoline in fleet vehicles.
However, some natural gas can be produced from renewable sources, such as landfill gas or waste products. Landfill gas achieves an estimated life-cycle GHG emission reduction as high as 66 percent when it replaces diesel fuel while waste gas can achieve credit for avoided life-cycle emissions, in some cases.
While these sources provide an opportunity for even greater reductions in GHG emissions, they are less abundant and can be more difficult to capture efficiently. In addition, natural gas trucks are typically less fuel efficient. The spark ignition engine used to power these trucks is roughly 15 less efficient than a diesel counterpart.
Refueling locations, fuel venting and handling, and facility adaptation are additional issues that must be considered. Another factor is the uncertainty of energy markets.
While the price of natural gas has been relatively low the U. Energy Information Administration projects higher natural gas and petroleum prices into the future.
Despite these challenges, several large motor carriers have purchased natural gas-fueled vehicles in recent years. Biodiesel and Renewable Diesel.Periodic Vehicle Inspection/Diesel Emission.
IDOT is responsible for regulating and overseeing inspections that are conducted at approximately official testing stations located across Illinois. Frequently asked questions about commercial vehicles, commercial vehicle operators' registration, safety rating and other topics.
Oregon Department of Transportation home page. Your browser is out-of-date! It has known security flaws and may not display all features of this and other websites. Transportation plays a key role in moving goods and people across Alberta.
Through monitoring and enforcing safety standards, Alberta Transportation aims . Since , Fairfax County Department of Transportation (FCDOT) has served the Fairfax County community by enhancing mobility, safety and the quality of life of residents, businesses and visitors through planning, coordinating, funding, implementing and sustaining a multi-modal transportation system that moves people and goods, consistent with the values of the community.
The transportation domain is beginning to apply Artificial Intelligence (AI) in mission-critical tasks (for example, self-driving vehicles carrying passengers) where the reliability and safety of an AI system will be under question from the general public.