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The implementing regulation defines bank to mean an insured bank, a mutual savings bank, a savings bank, an insured credit union, a savings association, an agency or a branch of a foreign bank, and members of a Federal Home Loan Bank.
A bank also includes the Treasury of the United States and the United States Postal Service to the extent that they act as a paying bank. What is check truncation? Check truncation refers to removing an original paper check from the check collection or return.
With Check 21, a substitute check or an electronic image of the original paper check replaces the original check in the collection or return process and is cleared through the check-clearing network. What is a substitute check? A substitute check is a paper reproduction of an original paper check that must 1 contain an image of the front and back of the original check, 2 bear a Magnetic Ink Character Recognition MICR line containing all the information from the original check MICR line, except as provided in industry standards to facilitate substitute check processing, 3 conform in paper stock, dimension, and otherwise with industry standards, and 4 be suitable for automated processing in the same manner as the original check.
When is a substitute check legally the same as the original check it represents? To be the legal equivalent of the original check, the substitute check must meet each of the requirements described in the previous paragraph and, in addition, must 1 accurately represent all the information from the original check i.
You can use it the same way you would use the original check. What is the industry standard? D, 12 CFR This includes transaction, savings, MMDA and time deposits. How are consumer accounts defined for the purposes of Check 21?
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How is a check defined for purposes of Check 21? The term check in Regulation CC does not include drafts drawn on branches of banks located outside the United States or drafts drawn in a currency other than U.
Are all checks eligible for truncation and reconversion to a substitute check? The term IRD formerly included other documents used to replace original checks, such as photocopies in lieu used when an original check was lost or destroyed, but ANS X9.
Warranties and Indemnities What does it mean when a customer has a warranty claim under the Check 21 Act? A customer may make a warranty claim even if they did not receive a substitute check. Are consumer customers the only ones that can have a warranty claim under Check 21? Warranty protections under the act apply to any customer consumer, business, or other that receives a substitute check or any representation of a substitute check.
It is the expedited recrediting rights that only apply to consumers and only in the event the consumer received the actual substitute check. Must a person have received a substitute check to have a warranty claim? When does a customer have an indemnity claim under the Check21 Act?
A customer who incurred a loss due to the receipt of a substitute check instead of the original check may have an indemnity claim.
The indemnity claim may or may not involve a warranty breach. For example, if the substitute check satisfied the Check 21 Act warranties, a customer that nonetheless suffered a loss because they received the substitute check instead of the original check could have an indemnity claim.
In contrast to the Check 21 Act warranties, which apply regardless of what the customer received, a customer must have received an actual substitute check to make an indemnity claim.
What additional protections does the Check 21 Act provide to consumers? The Check 21 Act provides a special expedited recredit procedure that consumers may use to resolve errors involving a substitute check under certain circumstances.
This procedure is available only to consumer customers, not to corporate or business customers or to persons who hold an account for business purposes. As with the indemnity, a consumer must have received an actual substitute check to make an expedited recredit claim.SREE's Spring Conference in Washington, D.C.
The International Finance and Macroeconomics Program.
List of Members. Program Working Papers, in chronological order. Gita Gopinath of Harvard University and Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas of University of California, Berkeley.
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Based in Washington, DC, National Journal provides solutions and tools to help government affairs professionals navigate policy, politics, and people. This entry is concerned with extreme poverty.
The World Bank is the main source for global information on extreme poverty today and it sets the International Poverty Line. The poverty line was revised in —since then, a person is considered to be in extreme poverty if they live on less than international dollars (int.-$) per day.