Catholicism was effectively illegal, but it was for not attending church that Catholics were fined, not for simply being Catholic, and the fine applied to dissenting Puritans as well as to those of the Catholic faith. Ina 12 pence fine for refusing to go to church was created, and the loss of office for Catholic clergy refusing to take the oath of supremacy. Attendance at mass was to be punished by a fine of marks, but the saying of mass, or arranging for it to be said, carried the death penalty, although Elizabeth ensured that this was never implemented before as she disliked such extremism. As far as Elizabeth was concerned, so long as Catholics behaved themselves, were loyal to her, and attended church now and then, they were free to believe what they wished.
While not mentioned in Henry VIII's succession will, the strikingly beautiful princess was related to the Tudor line and had some claim to the throne. Under the Catholic interpretation, this made Elizabeth illegitimate and unfit to rule. If Elizabeth was not correctly qualified by lineage to rule England, Mary Queen of Scots, conveniently a Catholic, had one of the strongest claims.
Catholics throughout Europe, including some in England, believed that Mary was the true heir to the English crown. When William was indeed killed inElizabeth and her advisors became increasingly fearful.
At this time, the widowed Queen returned to Scotland with vague hopes of taking the English throne by a coup. InMary's subjects assassinated her husband Darnley. Following that, she married another unpopular man named Bothwell. Soon, inthe Scots drove Mary out of power.
Elizabeth, along with all of the rest of Europe's rulers, was horrified at the idea that the common people might revolt against their ruler. Elizabeth, fearing that Mary might go abroad and raise an army, and also afraid that the people of Scotland might lock her up, acted quickly to imprison her nemesis in Lochleven Castle, from which Mary successfully plotted her escape.
Several plots against Elizabeth were discovered in the following years: All of these failed plots hoped to assassinate Elizabeth and wanted the Spanish Army, which Philip II had then sent to suppress Protestants in the Netherlands, to invade England.
InParliament required all English men to sign the Bond of Association, by which they promised to help hunt down anyone who killed Elizabeth. Elizabeth signed Mary's death warrant, and Walsingham and Burleigh rushed her execution through without waiting to hear more from Elizabeth. On February 8,stoically facing her death, Mary Queen of Scots was executed.
Commentary Even before Mary Queen of Scots had become a threat, her mother presented some problems for Elizabeth: Elizabeth certainly wanted to get Mary of Guise's French armies out of Scotland, but she was afraid that her interference might provoke a French invasion of England.
Elizabeth refused to send troops, instead sending money to support the Protestants, who overthrew the Queen Regent. Lord Burleigh then William Cecil encouraged military, while Elizabeth, fearful of action as always, hesitated. Later, at Cecil's advice, she sent an army, which was defeated.
It prevented Mary of Guise and her family from using England's coat of Arms, it forced them to formally recognize Elizabeth as Queen of England, and it reacquired the removal of French forces from Scotland. Thus Elizabeth had a long history of conflict with Mary Queen of Scots' family.
Mary Stuart herself refused to ratify the Treaty of Edinburgh. Other than her later battles against the Spanish Armada, the greatest threat Elizabeth faced during her rule was from Mary Queen of Scots.
But although Catholics throughout Europe supported her cause, Mary was eventually sorely disappointed in her expectation that English Catholics would rise against Elizabeth. Regardless of their religious beliefs, all of England could appreciate the welcome prosperity and stability Elizabeth's reign had provided.
Furthermore, although Europe's Catholic rulers supported Mary Queen of Scots in principle, they did not actually assist her, although Elizabeth and Walsingham always feared this possibility.
While it was initially impossible to link Mary to the anti-Elizabeth plots, the constant danger Mary posed motivated Parliament to push for her execution. Since the execution was rushed through by Elizabeth's advisors who claimed that they did it to spare her the pain of having to order Mary's death the Queen later claimed that she would not actually have allowed the execution, and that her advisors had betrayed her wishes.
This is unlikely, as Mary Queen of Scots was a tremendous threat.British History - Queen Elizabeth’s Treatment of Catholics. Queen Elizabeth 1 Essay - Elizabeth I (also known as Elizabeth the Great, or the "Virgin Queen") was born in into a .
If Elizabeth was not correctly qualified by lineage to rule England, Mary Queen of Scots, conveniently a Catholic, had one of the strongest claims.
Catholics throughout Europe, including some in England, believed that Mary was the true heir to the English crown. Catholics believed that the true Queen of the land was Mary Queen of Scots.
In he issued a bull "Regnans in Excelsis" (a papal document) against Elizabeth, that excommunicated her and absolved all her subjects from allegiance to her and her laws. Elizabeth had inaugurated a policy of aloofness from Catholic Spain, and the King of Spain, Philip II, was plotting to replace her with Queen Mary.
Mary was a rallying point for those in England opposed to Elizabeth. Queen Elizabeth I and religion Queen Elizabeth I wanted to build a stable, peaceful nation with a strong government, free from the influence of foreign powers in matters of the church and the state.
To realise this vision it was necessary to reach a new religious settlement that was as inclusive as possible. Elizabeth I (also known as Elizabeth the Great, or the "Virgin Queen") was born in into a dangerous world of political intrigue.
When she was only two years old, her father, King Henry VIII killed her mother, Ann Boleyn, because she had not yet produced a male heir.
Henry's routine killing of.