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Italian opera Opera originated in Italy in the late 16th century during the time of the Florentine Camerata. Through the centuries that followed, opera traditions developed in Naples and Venice; the operas of Claudio MonteverdiAlessandro Scarlattiand, later, of Gioacchino RossiniVincenzo Belliniand Gaetano Donizetti flourished.
Opera has remained the musical form most closely first dance recital essay help with Italian music and Italian identity. This was most obvious in the 19th century through the works of Giuseppe Verdian icon of Italian culture and pan-Italian unity.
Italy retained a Romantic operatic musical tradition in the early 20th century, exemplified by composers of the so-called Giovane Scuolawhose music was anchored in the previous century, including Arrigo BoitoRuggiero LeoncavalloPietro Mascagniand Francesco Cilea.
Causes included the general cultural shift away from Romanticism and the rise of the cinemawhich became a major source of entertainment. A third cause is the fact that "internationalism" had brought contemporary Italian opera to a state where it was no longer "Italian".
Traditional Romantic opera remained popular; indeed, the dominant opera publisher in the early 20th century was Casa Ricordiwhich focused almost exclusively on popular operas until the s, when the company allowed more unusual composers with less mainstream appeal.
The rise of relatively new publishers such as Carisch and Suvini Zerboni also helped to fuel the diversification of Italian opera.
Respected composers from this era include the well-known Aldo Clementiand younger peers such as Marco Tutino and Lorenzo Ferrero. Until approximatelyit was possible to hear Gregorian Chant and Renaissance polyphonysuch as the music of PalestrinaLassusAnerioand others. Approximately to approximately was a century during which a more popular, operaticand entertaining type of church music was heard, to the exclusion of the aforementioned chant and polyphony.
In the late 19th century, the Cecilian Movement was started by musicians who fought to restore this music. This movement gained impetus not in Italy but in Germany, particularly in Regensburg. The movement reached its apex around with the ascent of Don Lorenzo Perosi and his supporter and future saintPope Pius X.
Even opera composers occasionally worked in other forms— Giuseppe Verdi 's String Quartet in E minor, for example. Even Donizettiwhose name is identified with the beginnings of Italian lyric opera, wrote 18 string quartets.
In the early 20th century, instrumental music began growing in importance, a process that started around with Giuseppe Martucci 's Second Symphony, a work that Malipiero called "the starting point of the renascence of non-operatic Italian music. The early 20th century is also marked by the presence of a group of composers called the generazione dell'ottanta generation ofincluding Franco AlfanoAlfredo CasellaGian Francesco MalipieroIldebrando Pizzettiand Ottorino Respighi.
These composers usually concentrated on writing instrumental works, rather than opera. Members of this generation were the dominant figures in Italian music after Puccini's death in Guido Gatti 's founding of the periodical Il Pianoforte and then La rassegna musicale also helped to promote a broader view of music than the political and social climate allowed.
Most Italians, however, preferred more traditional pieces and established standards, and only a small audience sought new styles of experimental classical music. Italian ballet Italian contributions to ballet are less known and appreciated than in other areas of classical music.
Italy, particularly Milanwas a center of court ballet as early as the 15th century, which was influenced by the entertainments common in royal celebrations and aristocratic weddings. Early choreographers and composers of ballet include Fabritio Caroso and Cesare Negri.
Early ballet was accompanied by considerable instrumentation, with the playing of horns, trombones, kettle drums, dulcimers, bagpipes, etc. Although the music has not survived, there is speculation that dancers, themselves, may have played instruments on stage. He became balletmaster at La Scala in It was composed in and is a lavish tribute to the scientific and industrial progress of the 19th century.
It is still performed and was staged as recently as Currently, major Italian opera theaters maintain ballet companies. They exist to provide incidental and ceremonial dancing in many operas, such as Aida or La Traviata. These dance companies usually maintain a separate ballet season and perform the standard repertoire of classical ballet, little of which is Italian.
The Italian equivalent of the Russian Bolshoi Ballet and similar companies that exist only to perform ballet, independent of a parent opera theater is La Scala Theatre Ballet. Experimental music[ edit ] Experimental music music is a broad, loosely defined field encompassing musics created by abandoning traditional classical concepts of melody and harmony, and by using the new technology of electronics to create hitherto impossible sounds.
In Italy, one of the first to devote his attention to experimental music was Ferruccio Busoniwhose publication, Sketch for a New Aesthetic of Music, discussed the use of electrical and other new sounds in future music. He spoke of his dissatisfaction with the constraints of traditional music: Who still knows it nowadays?
After a dispute over the value of experimental music inCasella formed the Corporazione delle Nuove Musiche to promote modern experimental music. Classical music in society[ edit ] Italian classical music grew gradually more experimental and progressive into the midth century, while popular tastes have tended to stick with well established composers and compositions of the past.
In symphonic music, of the 26 composers whose music was played, 21 of them were from the 19th century or earlier, composers who use the melodies and harmonies typical of the Romantic era. This focus is common to other European traditions, and is known as postmodernisma school of thought that draws on earlier harmonic and melodic concepts that pre-date the conceptions of atonality and dissonance.
When music is part of a public display or gathering, it is often chosen from a very eclectic repertoire that is as likely to include well-known classical music as popular music. A few recent works have become a part of the modern repertoire, including scores and theatrical works by composers such as Luciano BerioLuigi NonoFranco Donatoniand Sylvano Bussotti.Violinist Hilary Hahn on the Lessons She Learned From Her Two Greatest Teachers.
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