How internal and external factors affect an organization, and how to respond appropriately to those changes The use of planning in an organization. Healthcare organizations are faced with many challenges. The leadership in an organization coupled with teamwork will make all the difference in meeting those challenges.
Matrix management This organisational type assigns each worker two bosses in two different hierarchies.
One hierarchy is "functional" and assures that each type of expert in the organisation is well-trained, and measured by a boss who is super-expert in the same field.
The other direction is "executive" and tries to get projects completed using the experts. Projects might be organised by products, regions, customer types, or some other schemes. As an example, a company might have an individual with overall responsibility for products X and Y, and another individual with overall responsibility for engineering, quality control, etc.
Therefore, subordinates responsible for quality control of project X will have two reporting lines. Pyramids or hierarchical[ edit ] A hierarchy exemplifies an arrangement with a leader who leads other individual members of the organisation.
This arrangement is often associated with basis that there are enough imagine a real pyramid, if there are not enough stone blocks to hold up the higher ones, gravity would irrevocably bring down the monumental structure.
So one can imagine that if the leader does not have the support of his subordinates, the entire structure will collapse. Hierarchies were satirised in The Peter Principlea book that introduced hierarchiology and the saying that "in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence.
Organizational theory In the social sciences, organisations are the object of analysis for a number of disciplines, such as sociologyeconomics political sciencepsychologymanagementand organisational communication.
The broader analysis of organisations is commonly referred to as organisational structureorganisational studiesorganisational behaviouror organisation analysis.
A number of different perspectives exist, some of which are compatible: From a functional perspective, the focus is on how entities like businesses or state authorities are used. From an institutional perspective, an organisation is viewed as a purposeful structure within a social context.
From a process-related perspective, an organisation is viewed as an entity is being re- organised, and the focus is on the organisation as a set of tasks or actions.
Sociology can be defined as the science of the institutions of modernity ; specific institutions serve a functionakin to the individual organs of a coherent body.
In the social and political sciences in general, an "organisation" may be more loosely understood as the planned, coordinated and purposeful action of human beings working through collective action to reach a common goal or construct a tangible product.
This action is usually framed by formal membership and form institutional rules.
Sociology distinguishes the term organisation into planned formal and unplanned informal i. Sociology analyses organisations in the first line from an institutional perspective.
In this sense, organisation is an enduring arrangement of elements. These elements and their actions are determined by rules so that a certain task can be fulfilled through a system of coordinated division of labour.
Economic approaches to organisations also take the division of labour as a starting point. The division of labour allows for economies of specialisation.Macro environment factors refer to all external uncontrollable forces that affect the decision-making, strategies and performance of any organization.
Macro environment factors are often categorized using the acronym "PESTLE." PESTLE stands for political, economic, social, technological and legal.
Sustainability and the success of your non profit organisation will only be realised if you are aware of the forces and trends affecting your external environment. Organization’s External Environment The external €environment of an organization comprises of all the entities that exist outside its boundary, but have significant influence on its growth and survival.
The External Analysis takes a look at the opportunities and threats existing in your organization’s environment. Both opportunities and threats are independent from the organization.
Differentiating between strengths/weaknesses and opportunities/threats is to ask this essential question: Would this be an issue if the organization didn’t exist? All outside factors that may affect an organization make up the external environment.
The external environment is divided into two parts: Directly interactive: This environment has an immediate and firsthand impact upon the organization.
A new competitor entering the market is an example. Indirectly. Even though the external environment occurs outside of an organization, it can have a significant influence on its current operations, growth, and long-term sustainability.