I transferred schools before dropping out and then floated around for a while. Amid my grief, I puzzled over how removed Americans are from death and loss.
He and his students are exploring the links between traumatic experiences and physical and mental health.
A recent study in the Journal of The American Medical Association found that people who wrote about their stressful situations had less health problems and overall better health. Over four consecutive days, 50 healthy undergraduates were randomly assigned to write about either the most upsetting events of their lives or about superficial topics.
Blood samples were drawn from the participants before the first day of writing, the last day of writing, and a third time 6 weeks later. Two particular results emerged from the immune study.
First, individuals who wrote about traumas exhibited improved immune function from the final day of the experiment to the 6 week follow up. Second, a high level of disclosure showed significantly greater immune improvement than low disclosure from before to after the writing phase of the study.
Pennebaker believes that disclosure of trauma is cognitively beneficial because it promotes the assimilation of the events. In his view, it translates the images of the events into language, and provides a sense of detachment from the experiences.
Pennebaker compared a group of college students who wrote about trauma with a group who wrote about trivial things. Before the study, the 46 students visited the campus health clinic at similar rates.
In another study, published inresearchers found direct physiological evidence that writing increased the level of disease fighting lymphocytes circulating in the blood stream. Preliminary research showed that writing can cause modest declines in blood pressure.
Pennebaker investigated the impact of expressive writing among worksite wellness programme participants. The degree to which writing or talking about basic thoughts and feelings can produce profound physical or psychological changes is nothing short of amazing.
Dozens of writing experiments have been conducted by researchers in laboratories around the world. Writing about emotional upheavals has been found to improve the physical and mental health of grade- school children and nursing home residents, arthritis sufferers, medical school students, maximum security prisoners, new mothers, and rape victims.
Not only are their benefits to health, but writing about emotional topics has been found to reduce anxiety and to aid people in securing new jobs. At the beginning of his research journey Pennebaker thought that the primary value of writing was that it reduced the work of inhibition.
From his own experience however, it was clear to him that writing accomplished much more. He believed that writing about upsetting events would bring a new understanding of the emotional events themselves.
Pennebaker talked about his own experience in writing as a self- therapy. He and his wife had married right out of college and 3 years later, were questioning many of the basic assumptions of their relationship.
This was a very dark period of their life. He had never been depressed before, but at that time he felt an overwhelmimg pressure on his heart every morning. Pennebaker did not know how to cope with this depression. He stopped eating, began drinking more alcohol, and began smoking.
And, because he was embarrassed by what he considered to be emotional weakness, he avoided friends. Even though he was a graduate student in psychology, he refused to go to a therapist.
After a month of emotional isolation e started writing about his deepest thoughts and feelings. He was drawn to his typewriter each afternoon for about a week, where he spent from 10 minutes to an hour pounding on the keys.
He wrote about his marriage but soon turned to his feelings about his parents, career etc.The Psychological Role of Expressive and Literary Writing - A Case Study on Kuwaiti Women PsyArt: An Online Journal for the Psychological Study of the Arts home.
Online Writing Resources for Students How to Outline Essays, Proofread Papers & Everything In-Between. How to Write an Expressive or Descriptive Essay – The University of Texas at El Paso MLA and Chicago citations for journals, books, blogs, newspapers and encyclopedias.
An expressive essay is written in the first person (I, me, and sometimes, we and us). Use of the 2 nd person (you, yours) is not appropriate in this kind of essay. Requirements for the Reflective Journal (CSEC) The Reflective Journal is a body of work reflecting the student’s exposure to the theory, process and practice of Visual Arts with special reference to the TWO Expressive Forms studied.5/5(3).
A thesis statement for an academic essay is more than a statement of fact; it is an arguable claim or the writer’s position on the topic, which is usually a direct response the question posed by the assignment. Kurt Cobain's Journals, in the expressive quality of their form and content, cause one to wonder just why the journal has fallen out of fashion in contemporary composition.
Certainly, earlier compositionists in our field saw the journal as a crucial tool for learning to write.