I want you to get out and make it work Although this book started out as an individual project, in the end a great many people, most of whom prefer to remain anonymous, helped make it possible through proofreading, fact-checking, recommending sources, editing, and more.
Theories of Addiction — What is the Meaning of Addiction? An Analysis of the Theories of Addiction In many cases, addiction theorists have now progressed beyond stereotyped disease conceptions of alcoholism or the idea that narcotics are inherently addictive to anyone who uses them.
The two major areas of addiction theory—those concerning alcohol and narcotics—have had a chance to merge, along with theorizing about overeating, smoking, and even running and interpersonal addictions. Yet this new theoretical synthesis is less than meets the eye: It mainly recycles discredited notions while including piecemeal modifications that make the theories marginally more realistic in their descriptions of addictive behavior.
These theories are described and evaluated in this chapter as they apply to all kinds of addictions. They are organized into sections on genetic theories inherited mechanisms that cause or predispose people to be addictedmetabolic theories biological, cellular adaptation to chronic exposure to drugsconditioning theories built on the idea of the cumulative reinforcement from drugs or other activitiesand adaptation theories those exploring the social and psychological functions performed by drug effects.
While most addiction theorizing has been too unidimensional and mechanistic to begin to account for addictive behavior, adaptation theories have typically had a different limitation.
In this way drugs are seen as a way to cope, however dysfunctionally, with personal and social needs and changing situational demands. Yet these adaptation models, while pointing in the right direction, fail because they do not directly explain the pharmacological role the substance plays in addiction.
They are often considered—even by those who formulate them—as adjuncts to biological models, as in the suggestion that the addict uses a substance to gain a specific effect until, inexorably and irrevocably, physiological processes take hold of the individual.
At the same time their purview is not ambitious enough not nearly so ambitious as that of some biological and conditioning models to incorporate non-narcotic or non-drug involvements.
They also miss the opportunity, readily available at the social-psychological level of analysis, to integrate individual and cultural experiences.
Cigarette smoking, alcoholism, and overweight—like divorce, child abuse and religion—run in families. This addictive inheritance has been most studied in the case of alcoholism. Studies endeavoring to separate genetic from environmental factors, such as those in which adopted-away offspring of alcoholics were compared to adopted children with nonalcoholic biological parents, have claimed a three to four times greater alcoholism rate for those whose biologic parents were alcoholic Goodwin et al.
Vaillant l approvingly cited the Goodwin et al. Since these subjects were reared by their natural families, however, this finding does not distinguish effects of alcoholic environment from inherited dispositions. Vaillant did find that subjects with alcoholic relatives they did not live with were twice as likely to become alcoholic as subjects who had no alcoholic relatives at all.
The chief of these is ethnicity: Irish Americans in this Boston sample were seven times as likely to be alcohol dependent as were those of Mediterranean descent. Controlling for such large ethnicity effects would surely reduce the 2 to 1 ratio for subjects with alcoholic relatives compared to those without in alcoholism substantially even as other potential environmental factors that lead to alcoholism besides ethnicity would still remain to be controlled for.No more talk about the old days, it’s time for something great.
I want you to get out and make it work Thom Yorke Dedicated to the wonderful people of RuinAmalia, La Revoltosa, and the Kyiv infoshop, for making anarchy work. Explore audio highlights, further reading that will help you delve deeper into this week’s episode, and vigorous conversations in the form of our comments section below.
Context of the election. Heading into the election, the sitting governor was Scott Walker (R), who was first elected in , won a recall election in , and was re-elected in On October 18, , Walker announced that he would seek re-election to a third term in That seems different, though, because it requires rejecting one ideology/ingroup, namely Catholicism.
It makes sense that people identifying as Catholic would resent that the Protestants found a way to weaken Catholicism, and apparently people who “took the soup” were ostracized.
Re possible reasons for passivism: my personal one is that I had tried activism a few times over the years, and it backfired in various traumatic and unexpected ways, even though my words and actions were indistinguishable (to me) from those taken by other, much more successful activists.
The backlash to PETA brings to mind the recent complaints of Uber surge-pricing; that is, people complaining about something THAT WOULD OTHERWISE NOT EXIST.